Big River Zinc Company:  LWS personnel were requested to evaluate potential environmental liability associated with an historic zinc-processing facility located in Sauget, Illinois, adjacent to the Mississippi River. A monitoring well and sampling program was designed and implemented to characterize constituents of concern (COCs) in the alluvial aquifer relative to their magnitude and extent, as well as the potential for the COCs to migrate off-site. Based on the results of the initial environmental assessment, a voluntary remediation program was designed and implemented to reduce metals input to the local alluvial aquifer.

Cherry Creek Basin Water Quality Authority:  LWS personnel were tasked with developing a watershed water quality monitoring network in the Upper Cherry Creek Basin to evaluate nutrient inputs to Cherry Creek Reservoir. LWS personnel designed and implemented a paired surface water and ground water monitoring network from Franktown to Cherry Creek Reservoir which collected water quality data at key points along the stream reach related to tributary inputs as well as anthropogenic inputs related to wastewater discharges. Statistical analyses and mass balances were used to evaluate potential water quality degradational effects from point and non-point sources.

Battle Mountain Resources, Inc.: The San Luis Gold Project, a gold mine located in Costilla County, Colorado, required the construction and maintenance of a surface and ground water monitoring network to gather pre-mining water quality information to establish both hydrologic and water quality conditions prior to the initiation of mining. LWS personnel establish a surface and ground water quality monitoring network and developed a database for use in assessment of mining impacts on the surrounding environment. These data have been used during the post-mining reclamation period to demonstrate the hydrologic and water quality conditions that were naturally occurring in the mine area.

Numerous LUST Cases in Metro Denver:  LWS personnel conducted quarterly monitoring and reporting for numerous leaking underground storage tank (LUST) events throughout metro Denver.  Activities included monitoring water levels and sampling ground water for laboratory analyses, as well as field monitoring of soil vapor monitoring points.  An Excel database for each project was used to tabulate and graph the results of measurements of water levels, and contaminant concentrations, to track changes over time.  Monitoring was conducted at sites undergoing both active remediation and monitored natural attenuation.

Cherry Creek Basin Water Quality Authority:  LWS was requested to design and implement a field investigation to assess the variability of phosphorus concentrations at varying depths within the Cherry Creek alluvial aquifer. LWS designed a drilling methodology to obtain depth-integrated water quality samples using packers to isolate water-producing zones between low permeability clay layers. As part of the water quality sampling, LWS also obtained soil samples that could subsequently be assessed for absorptive and desorptive properties related to phosphorus mobilization.

Cherry Creek Basin Water Quality Authority:  LWS was requested to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphorus removal from Pollutant Reduction Facilities (PRFs) in the Cherry Creek Basin. While it is generally believed that PRFs will remove phosphorus and other nutrients from the surface water through the detention of surface flows and subsequent removal through sedimentation and/or plant uptake, this study evaluated whether the phosphorus removal is permanent or if phosphorus concentrations are allowed to infiltrate into the ground water and be released from the PRFs. A water quality monitoring study was conducted and the results indicated that the PRFs are very efficient at permanently removing phosphorus concentrations.